If the offer is accepted by mail, the contract is concluded at the time the acceptance was booked.  This rule only applies if the parties publish implicitly or explicitly to consider it as a means of acceptance.  Contracts relating to land, misinterpreted letters and immediate lines of communication are excluded. The relevance of this early nineteenth-century rule in modern conditions, where many faster means of communication are available, has been questioned, but the rule remains a good law for now. A contract is concluded (provided that the other conditions of a legally binding contract are met) if the parties declare an objective intention of a copy of the contract. Under English law, butler Machine Tool Co Ltd v Ex-Cell-O Corporation (England) Ltd raised the question of which of the standard contracts in the transaction had priority. Lord Denning MR preferred to consider that the documents should be considered as a whole and the important factor was to find the essential document; On the other hand, Lawton and Bridge LJJ favoured the traditional analysis of the offer and considered that the last counter-offer before the start of the service invalidated all previous offers. The absence of a counter-offer or refusal on the part of the other party is considered an implicit assumption. Advertisements are generally not considered offers and are generally treated as an invitation to the dissemination of an offer. Therefore, no contract is concluded until it is accepted by the seller.
For example, in a New York case, Pepsico ran a commercial advertisement stating that customers could redeem Pepsi rewards for different prizes, including one for a military fighter jet.  When an individual attempted to reduce the number of points required for the jet, the court decided that no contract had been entered into. The court found that the complaints are not offers, unless the conditions are clear enough not to leave anything open for further negotiations. In our next module, we turn to the last element of a binding contract: the rule that consideration is necessary for the implementation of a contract. An offer can be terminated in several ways before accepting the offer. A long-standing and essential element of the validity of a contract is whether or not a “meeting of heads” took place between the parties at the time of the conclusion of the contract. . . .